Types of lighting
This lighting emphasizes texture on your subject. It can be dramatic and used to show the details.
Side lighting in portraits can create dramatic scary effects.
Back lighting can be the trickiest because the camera is shooting into the light. This is used when trying to create a silhouette affect of your subject.
Using a reflector when lighting will reflect light onto a dark part of a subject. A white piece of poster board or paper can be used when a reflector isn't available. Car sun shades can also be used to achieve the same affect.
This is used popularly when shooting portraits.
Flat lighting is used to create images with a small amount of shadows. This can be done during an overcast day or in the mornings and evenings when the sun isn't too high.